《大学英语(B)》课程全国统一考试复习辅导资料

作者:管理员 来源:本站 浏览:4658 发布时间:2015-3-11 9:38:16

 

 

《大学英语》(B

 

全国统考复习辅导资料

 

 

 

 

编写:宋永栋  游 颖  胡 娇

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

四 川 大 学 网 络 教 育 学 院

0一一年 二 月

 

 

 

  

 

第一部分:复习要求 (第3页)

第二部分:考试题型 (第3页)

第三部分:考试内容复习指导 (第4-59页)

.交际用语(第4-18页)

一、解题技巧

二、交际用语模拟试题讲解

.阅读理解(第18-27页)

一、阅读方法

二、阅读考题类型及相应的应答技巧

三、例题讲解

.词汇和语法(第27-44页)

一、词汇部分

二、语法部分

.完型填空(第44-47页)

一、要求与解题技巧

二、例题讲解

.英译汉(第47-49页)

.写作部分(第50-62页)

 

 

 

 

 

 

第一部分 总体复习要求

 

为帮助考生进一步地熟悉和掌握与统考相关的内容和技巧,我们对前几次统考试题(如难易度、重难点等)进行了分析,并结合新考试大纲及新的统考用书《大学英语》(B部分)2010年版)的要求,组织编写了该复习指导资料。

该复习指导资料基本按照统考题型分板块讲解(包括各部分的考试要求、答题技巧、典型试题分析以及归类讲解统考用书B部分9套模拟题中试题)。因此,这是专门为广大考生编写的一个针对全国网络英语统考的复习指导资料

考生应在认真学习和掌握该资料的基础上,再回过头来做统考用书中B部分的9套模拟题,这样才能确保考生在考试中遇到统考用书中出现的原题或相同知识点的试题时能够顺利完成,同时也为考生能够通过统考增添一份信心。

 

 

第二部分  考试题型

《大学英语B》机考90分钟试卷题量及分值分布

 

部分

项目

内容

题型

考点

题量

分值

分数

时间

(分钟)

      I.               

交际英语

5个简短对话

单选

日常情景交际能力

5

3

15

10

  II.               

阅读理解

2篇短文,文章包括应用文、描述文、记叙文、说明文或议论文等

单选

理解主旨要义、具体信息

10

3

30

20

III.               

词汇与结构

5个单句

单选

词汇与语法知识运用

5

2

10

10

  IV.               

完型填空

1篇短文

单选

词汇、句法和篇章和知识运用

5

2

10

10

      V.               

英译中

4个单句

翻译

短句翻译能力

4

5

20

10

  VI.               

写作

1篇作文

命题作文

短文写作能力

1

15

15

30

总计

30

 

100

90

 

第三部分 考试内容复习指导

 

.交际用语
日常交际用语是《大学英语》B统考试题中的第一部分,目的是检测考生在不同的情境中运用英语进行交际的能力。该部分以选择题形式出题,包括5个小题,每题3分,共15分,考试建议时间为10分钟。在复习该部分知识时,注意以下两个方面:

 

一、解题技巧

(一)探索答语的规律

在学习、使用和复习交际用语部分时,大家要掌握使用交际用语的几个原则:

A. 礼貌原则

     无论在任何场合、表达什么看法/情感,发话/发问和应答都要有礼貌,即使表达不同看法或批评意见,也要委婉间接表达,使对方听起来不刺耳,例如:

Do you think I can use your car for one day?

               .

A. I’m afraid not.                               B. No, you can’t.

C. I won’t let you do that.                   D. Absolutely not.

解析:此题第一说话人向对方提出请求“想借车一用”,对方如果不能答应,应该委婉地表示拒绝。因此选A

礼貌原则还表现在拒绝一个请求的方式上:一种是委婉地回绝,上面例子“I’m afraid

not”就是这种情况;另一种是先表同意,然后用“but”来个转折,表达出不同意的意思。例如:

I would like tobut…

That’s a good ideabut…

 

B. 利他原则

    在日常交际中,英语国家人民形成了一种习俗,即要尽可能为对方提供帮助和方便,对别人遇到的好事/成功要表示高兴,坏事要表示难过/惋惜,因此在交际用语中也要体现出来这种倾向,例如:

I am going to the City Hall, can you tell me how to get there, madam?

               .

       A. No, you don’t know 

       B. I don’t know.

       C. Yes, you will.           

       D. Sorry, I am new here too. But you can ask the policeman over there.

解析:此题第一说话人在向对方询问道路,按照利他原则,应尽可能为对方提供帮助和方便。所以选D,首先表示歉意,自己也不知道,同时给出一些有帮助的建议。

 

C. 文化遵从原则

   在选择交际用语时,大家要有跨文化视角,也就是说,要克服本民族的习惯思维和应答模式,要使用得体的、符合对方习惯的方式来应答。例如:

—Mary, your dress is really beautiful. How is John?  

               .

       A. Thank you very much                           B. No, no, John is not bad

       C. Thank you. He is fine                                   D. Don’t say that. It’s ugly. John is good

解析:按照英美国家的文化,当受到他人的赞扬时,应该真诚地表示感谢,这也是对说话人的尊重。如果一味谦虚说“不、没有、还差得远”等,反而就不礼貌了, 这与中国人的习惯和思维不太一样,所以选C

 

(二)排除法

我们发现,交际用语部分试题的选项中,错误选项不但错得比较明显,而且有一定规律可循,这为我们在解题时使用排除法提供了机会。错项的类型大体有:A. 选项本身语法错误;B.选项议题与谈话主题无关;C.选项明显违反上述三原则;D. 选项虽然与谈话主题有关,但不能提供发问者要求的信息、态度或观点;例如:

1— Mary, are you and your husband busy this weekend?

               .      

       A. this weekend we may go to cinema         B. No, we’re not

       C. Oh, it’s none of your business                D. Welcome to our party

讲解:Mary 的问题包含了“忙不忙”的询问,她可能想邀请对方作点什么。选项A属于上述D 的情况,虽然与提问句的主题有关,但并未直接提供“忙”还是“不忙”的信息;C 回答很不客气,显然违反礼貌原则;D 与谈话主题无关,最后只剩下B是答案。

2— You are not the manager here, are you?

               .           

       A. Yes, I’m not       B. No, I am           C. Yes, I am          D. No, not at all

讲解: 选项AB 都属于本身语法错误,不看发问句也可以排除。D 语法无错,但不能提供发问句要求的信息,属错项,答案是C

通过对近几次统考试题的分析,我们发现交际用语的考查形式多样:既有给出第一句问语,选答语的情况;也有给出答语,选第一句问语的情况(当然前者居多)。还有一些新的考查形式:如给出问语或答语的一部分,让考生补充完整问语或答语。事实上,这就给了考生更多的提示,缩小了选择的范围,在一定程度上降低了试题的难度。在做类似考题时,应抓住题干中已有文字提供的信息,选择最符合题意的选项,排除干扰项。例如:

3)—Would you like another slice of Christmas cake?

                I’m full.

  A. Yes, please.                                              B. No more, thanks.

  C. Why not?                                                 D. Nothing more.

讲解:第一说话人询问对方“你要不要再吃一块圣诞蛋糕?”,根据答者的第二句话I’m full.“我吃饱了”,推断出前一句的答语应该是No more, thanks“吃不下了,谢谢”。而选项AC表示接受邀请,D表示“没有什么(要说/做)的了”,均不符合题意,可直接排除。所以选B

 

二、交际用语模拟试题讲解

交际用语在统考试题中,考察题型主要可分为以下三类:询问类试题,约占该部分考题36.7%了; 看法类试题,约占该部分考题26.7%功能类用语试题,约占该部分考题36.6%。在下面的讲解中,我们按照这种分类,先总结每类交际用语的常用句型,然后列举典型示例(部分示例选自《大学英语》(B9套模拟题中的相关交际用语试题)。三大类试题中各小类按在考试中出现的频率,从高到低排序进行讲解。同学们在复习备考时,应尽量记住‘统考用书’中类似题例,记住几乎就等于得分10%

 

(一) 询问类

1  请求允许和应答

第一:

A.    提出请求

May /Can /could I use (borrow/take/ask/see) (我可以用///……)

I wonder /I am wondering if…?                        (不知道我能否……?)

Would you please…                               (能请你……吗?)

Do you think …?                                             (你是否认为……?)

B.   回答请求

    同意

Sure./Certainly./Of course. / By all means./ Yes, do please. / Here you are. / Help yourself.

(可以/当然/拿去/请便。)

    回绝

I’m afraid…                                                    (我恐怕……)

I’m sorry, but…                                               (对不起,但是……)

I’m sorry you can’t. /You’d better not.               (很抱歉,不行。/你最好别这样。)

 

【典型示例】

1) Could I borrow your car for a few days?

               .

A. Yes, you may borrow.                                          B. Yes, go on.

C. Sure, here you are. Enjoy your journey.          D. It doesn’t matter.

答案: C

2) I wonder if I could use your computer tonight?

                I’m not using it right now.

      A. Sure, go ahead.                                            B. I don’t know.

      C. It doesn’t matter.                                                D. Who cares

答案: A

 

第二:

A.   提出请求

     Do / Would you mind if I / my doing…              (你是否介意……?)

B.    回答请求

    同意                                                              

       NoI don’t mind./ Of course not.       / Not at all.     (不介意./当然不介意/一点也不介意)           

Please do./ Go ahead, please./       OK.                     (行,做吧。)                     

    不同意

Yes, I do.                                                               (我介意)

 

【典型示例】

1)—Would you mind changing seats with me?

                

      A. Yes, you can.                                               B. Of course, I like to.

      C. No, I don’t mind.                                         D. Certainly, please do.

答案:C

2)—Do you mind my smoking here?

                

      A. No, thanks.                     B. Yes, I do.                  C. Yes, I’d rather not.    D. Good idea.

答案:B

3—Do you mind if I read the newspaper on the table?

              

A. Good news for you                                      B. Go ahead, please

       C. Yes, sure                                                     D. No, I can’t

答案B。在用mind句型征求对方的意见时,如果表示同意,也可明确表示“please do/做吧,Go ahead, please./

 

2  邀请与应答

A.    提出邀请

Would you like to …

Will /Can you come to                                (你能来参加……?)

I’d like to invite you to ….                                (我想邀请你……)

B.    回答邀请

    同意                                                       

Yes / thank you, I’d love to.                           (谢谢,我愿意。)

Yes, it’s very kind of you.                              (愿意,你太好了。)              

That would be very nice.                           (那太好了。)

    回绝

Thanks/SorryI…                                                 (非常感谢/抱歉,我……)

I’d like to but…/ I’d love to but…                      (我很愿意去,但是……)

 

【典型示例】

1)—Can you go to the concert with us this evening?

              

  A. No, I already have plans.                                  B. I’d love to, but I’m busy tonight.

  C. No, I really don’t like being with you.                D. I’m ill, so I shouldn’t go out.

答案:B

2— We are going to have a dancing party tonight. Would you like to join us?

                

  A. Yes, it’s very kind of you                                  B. Of course not. I have no idea

  C. No, I can’t                                                     D. That’s all set

答案:A

 

3  提供帮助及应答

A.   提供帮助

Can I help you / What can I do for you          (有什么可以为您效劳吗?)

Would you like me to help you with ?            (我能帮您做……吗?)

B.      

    接受帮助

Thanks. That would be nice./ It’s so nice of you.       (多谢,那太好了)

Thank you for your help.                                  (感谢你的帮助)

    礼貌地回绝

No, thanks./ That’s ok. I can manage it myself. (谢谢,不用了。我能处理)

 

【典型示例】                 

1)—This box is too heavy for me to carry upstairs.

                

  A. You may ask for help.                                      B. Let me give you a hand.

  C. Please do me a favor.                                       D. I’d come to help

答案:B

2—Can I help you with your suitcase?.

                     

A. That’s OK. I can manage                              B. It’s not very light

C. I can help you with it                                    D. Put it down on the ground      

答案:A 

 

4 

A.   询问道路

Excuse me, can you tell me the way to …

Excuse me, where is …/ how can I get to…    (抱歉,请问去……怎么走呢?)

Is this rightthe right way to          (请问这是去……的路吗?)

B.   回答

    当知道对方询问的道路,就一定要给出具体信息

Go downupthe street. /Turn rightleft (顺着街道往上/下走。在……右/左转。)

Go straight ahead till you see …                         (往前直走直到你看见……)

It’s on the rightleft corner just ahead.         (在前面右边/左边转角处。)

  当不知道对方询问的道路,抱歉地说明原委

SorryI don’t know.

Sorry, I’m a stranger here.                               (抱歉,我不知道。)

 

【典型示例】

Excuse me, but can you tell me the way to the post office?

                

A. Don’t ask that.                                             B. Sorry, I’m a stranger here.

C. No, I can’t say that.                                     D. No, you’re driving too fast.

答案:B

 

5  询问具体信息

A.    询问

询问的主题为:时间、地点、距离、费用、人物、事件、频率等。

Who/ What/ When/ Where…(何人/何事/何时/何地……)

How long/How often/How many…      (时间多长或距离多远/频率/数量多少……)

B.   回答:

直扣主题,提供对方需要的信息。注意:

①特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词做出具体的回答。

②一般疑问句通常用yesno来回答, 时态人称要一致。

③当情态动词must引起一般问句:必须吗?,其否定回答通常用“you needn’t/don’t have to表示没有必要

④选择疑问句是问话者提供两个或两个以上答案供对方择一回答的问句,答语应做出一个明确的选择。

⑤反意问句的答语应根据实际情况确定:内容是肯定的,就用yes其后则跟肯定句 ;内容是否定的,则用no,其后则跟否定句。

 

【典型示例】

1)—Paul,                ?

Oh, that’s my father! And beside him, my mother.

A. what is the person over there                         B. who’s talking over there

C. what are they doing                                      D. which is that

答案:B

2)—How often do you go dancing?

                

A. I will go dancing tomorrow.                          B. Yesterday.

C. Every other day.                                           D. I’ve been dancing for a year.

答案:C,意为“每隔一天去跳一次舞。”  

3Are there any drug-stores around here?

                

    A. Yes, there is one on the left corner                 B. Yes, it is

       C. No, it isn’t                                                         D. Oh, you must have a cold

答案:A

4)—Shall we sit up here on the grass or down there near the water?

                

      A. I’d rather stay here if you don’t mind.            B. Sorry, I don’t like neither.

      C. Certainly, why not?                                      D. Yes, we like these two places.

答案:A

5)—Must I take a taxi?

No, you                . You can take my car.

      A. had better to             B. don’t                        C. must not                  D. don’t have to

答案:D

 

(二)看法类

1  表达惊讶,喜悦

第一:惊讶

Really?/ Is that so? / Oh dear! / Good heavens!           (真的?/ 哎呀!/天哪!)

第二:喜悦

That’s nice /wonderful/ great                                (真好!)

 

【典型示例】

1Ed said that his boy fell off tree.

              

    A. Oh dear! I hope he wasn’t hurt                            B. Oh, no. A luck boy

    C. He might have broken his arm                       D. Nothing serious

答案:A

2)—You know, I have three kids now.

                

A. Well, I’ve grown a mustache.                        B. That’s terrific!

C. Say, you’ve really changed your hair.             D. Well, I gave up drinking.

答案:B,意为“太棒了!”

 

2  表示附和、赞同

第一:附和与赞同

Yes, I think so.                                                       (是的,我也这样认为。)

I agree (with you).                                                         (我同意你的看法。)

I can’t agree with you more.                                 (我非常同意。)

第二:不赞同

No, I don’t think so.                                               (我不这样认为。)

I’m afraid not.

I can’t agree with you.                                             (我不同意你的看法。)

 

【典型示例】

Is it possible for you to work late tonight?

                

      A. I like it.                    B. I’ll do that.               C. I’d love to.        D. I think so.

答案:D

C.表示肯定,否定

 

3  表示肯定与否

I’m sure. /I’m not sure.                                          (我确定。/我不确定。)

Maybe / Perhaps                                                  (或许……)

 

【典型示例】

1—Are you sure about that?

                

A. You needn’t worry about that                        B. I like the idea

       C. Oh, no. I’m afraid of that                                    D. Oh yes, I’m absolutely positive

答案:D

2My camera isn’t working properly.

                

A. Maybe there’s something wrong with it          B. Here, have a look

C. I have no idea about it                                   D. There isn’t anything at all

答案:A

 

4  表示喜好、厌恶

I like…very much.                                                  (我很喜欢……)

I don’t likehate                                             (我不喜欢/讨厌……)

So do I. / Neither do I.                                             (我也……/我也不……)

 

【典型示例】

1— What do you think about this story

                

A. Thank you for telling me about the story         B. Yes, it’s a real story

       C. I like it very much                                        D. So do I

答案:C

2—I don’t like the sports programs on Sundays.

                

       A. So do I                    B. Neither do I             C. So am I            D. Neither am I

答案:B,当第一说话人对问题的看法是肯定、赞同的,用 “So do I.”表示自己同样赞同的态度;当第一说话人对问题的看法是否定、不赞同的,用 “Neither do I.”表达自己同样不赞同的态度。

 

(三)功能类

1  打电话

A.   发话方

HelloMay/Could/Can I speak to …?

Is … in/over there?                                          (你好!请找某某接电话好吗?)

B.   受话方

    当你就是对方要找的听话人时:

This is … (speaking). Speaking.                        (我就是某某,请讲。)

Who is that (speaking)?                             (你是哪位?)

    当对方要找的人不在场时,需要去叫他/

Hold on, please/One moment.

 (I’ll get him/her.)                                                  (请稍等,我去叫他/她。)

    当对方要找的人不在或不能接电话时,

Sorry, he is busy at the moment.            

Sorry, he isn’t here / is out right now.                      (对不起,他/她不在/现在忙……)

(Can I take a message for you?)                         (我能替你捎个话吗?)

    当发现对方拨错电话号码时,

I’m afraid you’ve got the wrong number.           (我想你拨错号码了。)

 

【典型示例】

1)—Hello, I’m Harry Potter.

Hello, my name is Charles Green, but                 

A. call my Charles                                            B. call me at Charles

C. call me Charles                                            D. call Charles me

答案:C

2)—Could I speak to Don Watkins, please?

                

A. I’m listening                                                B. Oh, how are you?

C. Speaking, please.                                          D. I’m Don.

答案:C

 

2 

A.    售货员

Can/May I help you/ What can I do for you.          (你想买点什么呢?)

B.     

I want/I’d like /I need…                                           (我想买……)

Thanks. I’m just having a look.                   (谢谢,我只是看看)

 

【典型示例】

What can I do for you?

                

A. I want a kilo of pears.                                          B. You can do in your own way.

C. Thanks.                                                      D. Excuse me. I’m busy.

答案:A

 

3  就餐

第一:

A.   服务员

What would you like (to have)?

Would you like something (to eat/ to drink)?              (你想吃点/喝点什么吗?)

Are you ready to order …                                     (可以点……了吗?)

B.    

I’d like …                                                               (我想要……)

No, thanks.                                                            (不用,谢谢。)

 

第二:

A.    主人

Please help yourself to some …                                (请吃点……)

B.    客人

Just a little, please.                                                  (就一点,谢谢。)

Thank you. I have had enough. / I don’t like           (谢谢,我吃饱了。/我不太喜欢……)

 

【典型示例】

1Would you like to order now?

                      

A. I’m full now                                               B. Yes. I’d like fish and soup

      C. But the price is high                                      D. It’s very kind of you 

答案:B

2)—Please help yourself to the seafood

                

      A. No, I can’t.                                                        B. Sorry, I can’t help.

      C. Well, seafood don’t suit for.                          D. Thanks, but I don’t like the seafood.

答案:D

3Have you got a table for four, Waiter ?

              

    A. We are going to restaurant                             B. Yes, sure. This way, please

    C. We have booked the seats                             D. Here are the menus.

答案:B

 

4  祝愿、祝贺与应答

第一:祝愿

A.    表达祝愿

Good luck!/Have a good time. /Wish you success.     (祝你好运!/祝你愉快!/祝你成功!)

B.    回答

Thank you. The same to you. /You too.                    (谢谢!你也一样。)

 

第二:祝贺

A.   I won the first / I got A …                                 (我获得第一名/我取得A等……)

B.    表达祝贺

(Well done!) Congratulations (on )!                             (干得好!祝贺你……)

A.   回答

Thank you.                                                             (谢谢。)

 

【典型示例】

1)—I was worried about my maths, but Mr. Brown gave me an A.

                

A. Don’t worry about it.                                         

B. Congratulations! That’s a difficult course.

C. Mr. Brown is very good.                       

D. Good luck to you!

答案:B

2)—Tomorrow is my birthday.

                

      A. Oh, I have no idea.                                       B. I’m glad you like it.

      C. Many happy returns of the day!                            D. You must be very happy.

答案:C,意为“祝你长命百岁!”

 

5  赞美与应答

A.   How beautiful…/How lovely…                          (此类句子表达说话人对对方的住房、家

具、衣物、发型、小孩等表示赞扬欣赏。)

B.   Thank you.                                                     (谢谢。)

 

【典型示例】

That’s a beautiful dress you have on!

                

A. Oh, thanks. I got it yesterday.                        B. Sorry, it’s too cheap.

C. You can have it                                            D. See you later.

答案:A

 

6  遗憾、歉意与应答

第一:遗憾

I’m sorry to hear it.                                                (听到这个我很遗憾。)

What a pity! / It’s a pity that…                                 (……真是太遗憾了。)

 

【典型示例】

I have got a pain in my neck.

              

      A. Yes, I agree                                                        B. Yes, you are quite right     

C. I’m sorry to hear that                                          D. I’m feeling sick

答案:C

 

第二:歉意

A.   表达歉意

I’m sorry…                                                            (抱歉……)

B.         

That’s all right. / That’s ok.

That’s nothing. / It doesn’t matter.                                   (没关系。)

 

【典型示例】

Oh, sorry to bother you.

                

A. That’s Okay.             B. No, you can’t           C. That’s good.      D. Oh, I don’t know.

答案:A

 

7  感谢与应答

A.    表达感谢

Thanks a lot! / Thank you (very much).                    (多谢!)

It’s very kind of you (to help me).                            (你真是太好了。)

B.       

Not at all. / That’s all right.

You’re welcome. /My pleasure.                                 (不客气。不用谢。)

 

【典型示例】

1)—Thanks for your help.

                

A. My pleasure.                                                B. Never mind.             

C. Quite right.                                                  D. Don’t thank me.

答案:A

2)—Thank you for inviting me.

                

A. I really had a happy time.                              B. Oh, it’s too late

C. Thank you for coming                                  D. Oh, so slowly?

答案:C

 

8  看病

第一:

A.    医生

What’s the matter/problem?

What’s wrong with you?                                         (你哪儿不舒服?)

B.    病人

I feel terrible.                                                                (我觉得不舒服。)

There’s something wrong with my leg.                      (我腿出了的点问题。)

I’ve got a high temperature/pain here.                        (我发烧/这里疼。)

 

第二:

A.   病人

Is there anything serious…                                          (严重吗?)

B.   医生

No/ Nothing serious.                                               (/没什么问题。)

Take this medicine three times a day. You’ll be all right soon. (一天吃三次药。你很快就会好。)

Just have a rest and drink more water                        (注意休息,多喝水。)

 

【典型示例】

1)—How are you feeling?

Much better.                 

      A. Thanks for coming to see me.                       B. You look great.

      C. You are so kind.                                           D. Don’t mention it.

答案:A

2)—Doctor, I don’t feel well.

                

      A. You are fine.                                                B. It doesn’t matter.

      C. What’s the matter?                                       D. Don’t take it seriously.

答案:C

 

9  劝告,建议,提醒

A.    劝告、建议

You’d better (not) do …/ You should…                            (你最好/最好别 /你应该…)

Why don’t you/Why not…                                       (你为啥不…)

What/How about … /Shall we…                              (我们去…如何?)

B.     

Sure. /Great. /Why notThat’s a good idea.             (可以/为什么不呢?好主意。)

I’ll take your advice.                                               (我会采纳你的建议的。)

No, thanks…                                                          (不用了,谢谢……)

 

【典型示例】

1—Shall we go shopping this Sunday?

               .

     A. Why not? Good idea!                                    B. I’ve no idea.     

     C. Yes, you will.                                               D. See you then.                 

答案:A

2Don’t take too long at the coffee shop. It’s 14:15.

               .

A. I’ll think your advice over                             B. I see. We have 30 minutes left.

C. That’s no problem                                        D. I’m afraid so

答案:B

3)—How about going to dinner at the Mexican restaurant tonight?

                

A. Forget it.                                                     B. Sorry, I like Mexican food.

C. That’s great!                                                D. Glad you like it.

答案:C

 

10、见面问候

A.    How are you? /How’s everything?                      (你好吗?/一切都好吗?)

B.    Fine, thank you, and you? /Very well, thank you. (挺好的,谢谢。你好吗?)  

     Just so-so.                                                      (一般。)

     Pleased/glad to meet you here.                          (很高兴在这里见到你。)

 

【典型示例】

1)—How are you, Bob?

                Ted.

A. How are you?                                              B. I’m fine. Thank you.

C. How do you do?                                                 D. Nice to meet you.

答案:B

2)— How do you do? Glad to meet you.

                

      A. Fine. How are you?                                      B. How do you do? Glad to meet you, too.

      C. How are you? Thank you!                             D. Nice. How are you?

答案:B

 

11       告别

A.    I’m afraid I must be leaving now.                             (恐怕我得走了。)

     I think it’s time for us to leave.                          (我想我们该离开了。)

B.    Good night.                                                     (晚安。)

Good bye. /See you later/tomorrow.                  (再见。)

 

【典型示例】

1)—Marilyn, I’m afraid I have to be leaving now.

                

A. That sounds wonderful.                                B. Oh, so early?

C. Not at all.                                                    D. Good luck!

答案:B

2—It’s getting late. I’m afraid I must go now.

—Ok.               .

A. Take it easy                     B. Go slowly                 C. Stay longer               D. See you

答案:D

 

12、旅行

A.    What/How about your trip/journey to…             (旅行如何?)

B.    It went very well. / It’s very interesting.                    (挺好的。/挺有趣的。)   

【典型示例】

How was your trip to London, Jane?

                

      A. Oh, wonderful indeed.                                  B. I went there alone.

      C. The guide showed me the way.                      D. By plane and by bus.

答案:A

 

13、天气

A.   How is the weather/ What’s the weather like   (某地方天气如何呢?)

B.   It’s fine.                                                                (很不错。)

It’s rather warm/hot/cold/rainy/cloudy/windy.     (非常温暖///常下雨/多云/吹风。)

【典型示例】

What’s the weather like in your hometown?

               .

       A. It’s a nice place                                            B. I like the food there

       C. He asks me whether I like the weather           D. It’s cold in winter and hot in summer

答案:D

 

14、订票

A.    顾客

I’d like to book/Can I get a seat                         (我想订……)

B.    售票员

YesSir/Madam                                                  (好的,先生/女士……)

I’m sorry, but                                                      (抱歉,但是……)

【典型示例】

1—Hello, is that Shanghai Airlines?

               .

A. Yes, can I help you?                                     B. Yes, what do you want?

C. Yes, you’re right                                                 D. Yes, right number     

答案:A

2— I’d like to book a flight to Shanghai, please.

               .

A. No, of course not                                                 B. Do you mind if I said no?

C. Yes, sir, single or return.                                 D. You can’t. We are busy.

答案:C,意为“好的,先生。单程还是往返票?”

 

15、乘车

A.   Which bus goes toDoes the bus go to     (去…乘哪路公车/这路公车是否到…)

B.   No. bus.                                                     (乘……路公车。)

【典型示例】

—Excuse me, which bus goes to the city museum?

                

A. The subway is over there                                    B. You can take No. 102 bus

C. It takes a long time                                       D. it’s wonderful

答案: B

 

16、意愿

A.    I want/hope/wish/ I’d like to                       (我想……)

I’d rather not                                                (我宁愿不……)

B.    I’ll                                                               (好的,我会…)

【典型示例】

Ami, I wan this report typed today.

                

A. It’ll be ready in the afternoon, sir                   B. I’d like you to help me

C. I know nothing about the report                            D. Leave it to tomorrow

答案: A

 

17、语言困难

A.    What does this word mean?                              (这个单词什么意思?)

What do you mean by saying                        (你说的是什么意思?)

B.    PardonWould you please say that again        (请再说一遍好吗?)

I’m afraid/sorry I don’t know.                                  (抱歉,我也不知道.)

【典型示例】

—I want to go to New York. What’s the fare?

                

       A. Pardon me?                                                        B. I’m sorry

       C. Yes, I don’t understand                                 D. I’m not understanding

答案: D

 

18、预约

A.   Can I help you/What can I do for you?               (有什么可以为您效劳吗?)

B.   I’d like to make an appointment (with)            (我想跟……预约)

 

【典型示例】

1—Good morning, Dr Johnson’s office. Can I help you?

               .

A. Speaking, please                                           B. I’d like to make an appointment, please

C. Yes, go on                                                   D. No, you can’t

答案:B

2— I have an appointment with Dr. Johnson.

                

A. The appointment is put off                                   B. You look sick and weak

       C. Please wait for a minute. He is busy now        D. Tell me your ID number.  

答案:C

 

19 安慰

Cheer up. / Take it easy. / Don’t worry.                            (别担心。)

 

【典型示例】

Unbelievable! I have failed the driving test again!

               . This is not the end of the world.

      A. Good luck.               B. Cheer up.                 C. Go ahead.                 D. No problem.

答案: B

 

.阅读理解

阅读《大学英语》B统考试题中的第二部分,包括2篇短文,10个小题,总共30分,考试建议时间为20分钟,阅读速度为每分钟50个单词。 这部分分值占了总分30%,大家一定要高度重视,下足力气,用够时间。

 统考试题的阅读部分中,问题的考查题型可分为细节题、正误判断题、推理题、要旨题、词义题和观点态度题,而其中细节题所占的比例最大,其次为正误判断题、要旨题和正误判断题,其余为词义题或观点态度题。

 

一、阅读方法:

首先,在解题前,应先快速浏览文章后的问题,找出题干中的关键词,明确需要解决的问题,这样阅读的目的就很明确;然后带着这些问题的关键词句开始阅读,并结合以下三种阅读方法解不同的题型。

略读Skimming:这种阅读方式用于快速浏览,其主要目的就是把握全文的大意。要按意群扫视,连贯阅读;要特别注意文章的开始段、结束段、每段的首句和结尾句以及段落之间的连接词语和文章中的信息词,它们往往是了解文章大意的关键

查读Scanning这种阅读方式适于寻找具体细节,例如:事实、数字、人物、原因、年代、方式等。这种方法主要用于做细节题。

细读Reading for full understanding这种阅读方式适于某些需要判断思考的问题。对于这种问题先要找到它在文章中的相关段落,然后逐句阅读,特别是对与问题有关的关键词、关键句要仔细推敲。

 

二.阅读考题类型及相应的应答技巧

(一)细节题:

主要是考查学生对文章某些事实的细节和数据的掌握,这类问题的答案一般都能在原文中找到。对于事实细节题,关键是要定位准确。应首先找到它的考查点,这种题只要找到细节题所在的地方,再联系上下文,然后根据它的命题规律答题即可。这类题的题干+答案在意义上通常等于原文中某一部分的内容,也就是说用不同的表达方式使题干+答案与原文等值(即同义结构,如:educational institutionà school; make strenuous effortsà strive)。文中的时间、地点、人物、数量或事实多为提问的对象(即when, where, who, why, how, how many/much,..),而这些问题的表达常不采用文章中的原话提问,而是使用同义词语等,因此,在选择答案前应首先看准题干,看清问题所问究竟是什么细节内容;然后,在查读时注意寻找与题目相关的关键词语;最后,在充分理解原文、原题的基础上确定答案。

 

(二)正误判断题

由于所提信息在文中比较清晰,可以一一找到,所以,解决这类问题可采用带选题跳读的阅读技巧,首先找出问题或选项中出现的关键词语或主要检测点,然后略读文章,扫描这些词所在的句子,再详细读这些句子。必要时,连同它们前后的句子也要仔细阅读,以便综合考虑和确定答案。这样做可以有根据地排除多余的信息及干扰,快速抓住供解题用的信息点,提高解题速度和准确性。

A: According to the passage, which of the following is (NOT) true?

通过文章可以得出,下面哪项是(不)正确的?

B: According to the passage, which of the following statements is wrong?

通过文章可以得出,下面除哪项是错误的表述?

 

(三)主旨题

       主要的目的是了解文章所论述的主题思想以及作者的写作意图。常见命题方式:

A: What is the general topic of the passage?               这篇文章的主题是什么?

B: The best title for this passage is ______.          这篇文章最佳的标题

C: The main idea of this passage is______.          这篇文章的主要内容

D: What is the passage about?                         这篇文章是有关什么内容的?

E: What does this passage mainly discuss?                这篇文章主要讨论的是什么?

这类问题选择答案时切忌过于具体,不能选择概括全篇文章中某一段落的主题的、或是某个细节的选项;另外也不要选择过于笼统的答案,致使选项中包含的内容超越了文章的主题。最基本的方法是找各个段落的主题句主题句通常在一段的开头或者结尾部分。因此解答主旨题时,应该多关注一个段落的两头。当然,有时候主题句藏在一段的中间,甚至压根儿就没有主题句。

 

(四)推理题:

这类问题旨在测试考生的逻辑推理能力、语言分析能力和综合归纳能力。它要求考生根据文章内容做出合乎逻辑的推断,包括考生对作者观点的理解,对某些句子修辞、语气、隐含意思等的理解。注意切不可把原文中已明确陈述的事实作为答案, 要选“言中所无,意中所有”的答案常见命题方式:

A: From the passage, it can be inferred that…          从文章可以推论出什么?

B: One could conclude from the passage that…          从文章可以得出什么结论

C: This passage has probably been taken from …             文章很可能是从什么地方选出的?

 

(五)词义题

阅读理解的词义题并非是单纯地考查词汇量,而是考查学生在一定的上下文中辨认和推测词义的能力。常见命题方式:

A: The word ….(Line…, Para…) most probably refers to ______.

B: In this passage, … probably means ______.   

C: The word “…” could best be replaced by which of the following?

解题方法:(1)直接定义。作者用了生词,然后马上就用一些简单的单词来解释它。这种重述就是直接定义,常见标志有连词or,而且多用逗号与生词隔开,“refer to”, “mean”等;2)同义暗示法。作者用了一个生词的时候,一般会在下文用一个同义词来暗示这个单词的意思;3)反义对比法。作者通过介绍一个生词的反义词来告诉我们这个生词的意思。因此,表示转折的联接词but, unlike, while, however, on the contrary就成了这类题目的标志词;4)事例证明法。诸如for example, such as之类的词组。

 

(六) 观点态度题:

       一般来说,说明文体裁客观,所以作者的态度应是客观的(objective)或中立的(neutral);而在议论文中,作者的观点往往是有所表达的,考生应细心捕捉表达或暗示情感态度的词或短语。常见的提问方式有:

A: How does the author feel about…?                   作者认为……怎么样?

B: What’s the author’s attitude towards…?      作者对……是什么看法或态度

C: Which of the following can best describe the author’s attitude towards…?

下面哪项最能描述作者对……的态度

D: The tone of the author is ______.           作者的语气或态度是什么?

 

常出现的有关态度的词optimistic(乐观的), pessimistic(悲观的), cautious(审慎的), enthusiastic(热情的), objective(客观的), subjective(主观的), arbitrary(武断的), neutral(中立的), positive(肯定的), critical(批评的), compromising(折衷的), indifference(漠不关心的), ironic(讽刺的), appreciative(欣赏的)等等。

此处为12小题解题之关键句(蓝色画线部分)。

此处为13小题解题之关键句(红色画线部分)。

 


三、例题讲解

(一)各种题型具体解题思路与分析

1.细节题

1(选自《大学英语》(B) Test 1, Passage 1, P. 120

The French Revolution broke out in 1789. At the time France was in a crisis. The government was badly run and people’s lives were miserable. King Louis XIV tried to control the national parliament and raise more taxes. But his effort failed. He ordered his troops to Versailles. The people thought that Louis intended to put down the Revolution by force. On July 14, 1789, they stormed and took the Bastille, where political prisoners were kept. Ever since that day, July 14 has been the French National Day. Louis tried to flee the country in 1792 to get support from Austria and Prussia. However, he was caught and put in prison. In September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. In the same year, Louis was executed. A few months later his wife, Marie also had her head cut off. The Revolution of France had frightened the other kings of Europe. Armies from Austria and Prussia began to march against France. The French raised republican armies to defend the nation. The Revolution went through a period of terror. Thousands of people lost their lives. In the end, power passed to Napoleon Bonaparte.

 

12. Which did not happen in 1789?

A. The French Revolution broke out.                 

B. The national economy was developing rapidly.

C. The government wasn’t well run.

D. King Louis XIV was in power.

【题解】此题为细节题。根据题干 “not happen in 1789”可以得知此题是对1789年所发生事情的考查判断,因此就需要回到原文寻找有关1789年所发生的事情的相关信息,文章中没有涉及到的选项就是此题的正确答案。选项A在文章的第一句话就提到了;选项B表示的是“国家经济迅速发展”,而浏览全文,无法在文章中找到与此相关的信息;选项C与原文中的第三句话“The government was badly run…”相对应;选项D中的“in power”表示当权,在朝的意思,在原文的第四句话“King Louis XIV tried to control the national parliament…”就已经表明这层含义,因此正确答案为B选项。

 

13. Where were the political prisoners kept?

A. In Versailles.             B. In Austria.                C. In Prussia.                       D. In Bastille.

【题解】此题为细节题。题干用的是特殊疑问词“where”来提问,询问地点。结合题干,回到原文寻找与题干对应的地方。在原文的第八句话“On July 14,1789, they stormed and took the Bastille, where political prisoners were kept.”中就提到了题干所要考查的地点,也就是原句中where引导的定语从句所修饰的词语Bastille,因此正确答案为D选项。

    解细节题时,要注意与题干相关的一些从句,比如定语从句,同位语从句,或者非谓语动词结构,因为往往这个时候,它所考查的就是这些句子或结构所要修饰或解释说明的名词。

 

2(选自《大学英语》(B) Test 2, Passage 2, P. 127

Britain and France are separated by the English Channel, a body of water that can be crossed in as few as 20 minutes. But the cultures of the two countries sometimes seem to be miles apart.

Last Thursday Britain and France celebrated the 100th anniversary(周年纪念)of the signing of a friendship agreement called the Entente Cordiality. The agreement marked a new beginning for the countries following centuries of wars and love-hate partnership.

此处为23小题解题之关键句(蓝色画线部分)。

此处为22小题解题之关键句(红色画线部分)。

But their relationship has been ups and downs over the past century. Just last year, there were fierce disagreements over the Iraq war-which British Prime Minister Tony Blair supported despite French President Jacques Chirac speaking out against it. This discomfort is expressed in Blair and Chirac’s body language at international meetings. While the French leader often greets German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder with a hug(拥抱), Blair just receives a handshake. However, some political experts say the war in Iraq could in fact have helped ties.

The history of divisions may well be because of the very different ways in which the two sides see the world. But this doesn’t stop 12 million Britons taking holidays in France each year. However, only 3 million French come in the opposite direction. Surveys(调查)show that most French people feel closer to the Germans than they do to the British. And the research carried out in Britain has found that only a third of the population believes the French can be trusted. Perhaps this bad feeling comes because the British dislike France’s close relationship with Germany, or because the French are not happy with Britain’s close links with the US.

Whatever the answer is, as both sides celebrate 100 years of “doubtful friendship”, they are at least able to make jokes about each other. Here’s one: What’s the best thing about Britain’s relationship with France? The English Channel. (320 words)

 

22. The war in Iraq does ____________ to the relationship between France and Britain.

A. good                                                           B. harm         

C. neither good nor harm                                  D. both good and harm

【题解】此题为细节题。根据题干可以判定此题是考查伊拉克战争对英法关系的影响,而在原文提到伊拉克战争的就只有文章的第三段。回到原文的第三段很容易就发现在本段的第二句话就提到了英法两国在伊拉克战争问题上存在“disagreement意见不合,文章后面也一直在叙述不合的具体表现在什么地方,但是文章最后一句话中“however…”表示转折,句中也用了“helped ties”来表明伊拉克战争也有利于两国的关系,因此正确答案为D选项。

       在解细节题时,要注意文章中表示句与句之间逻辑关系的词语,比如说:furthermore, in addition, what’s more, however, nevertheless等等这些词,因为往往在这些地方容易设置考点。

      

23. The British are not so friendly to ____________ and the French are not so friendly to ____________.

A. Germany; America                                       B. America; Germany

C. Germany; Germany                                      D. America; America

【题解】此题为细节题。分析题干中的“friendly”这个单词,可以看出此题考查的是英国和法国分别与选项中某个国家的关系不友好。根据原文第四段的最后一句话“the British dislike France’s close relationship with Germany…the French are not happy with Britain’s close links with the US英国不喜欢法国同德国亲密的关系……,法国对于英国与美国的亲密联系不高兴就可以看出此题的正确答案为A选项。

       解题时,要注意文章中与题干中心词有关的词语或句子,比如文章中的所用的“dislike”, “not happy”所表示的意思就是此题题干所要表述的 “not so friendly”

 

2. 推理题与正误判断题

3(见例2所选文章)

25. What does the last sentence mean?

A. As long as the English Channel exists, no further disagreement will form between France and Britain.

B. The English Channel can prevent anything unfriendly happening in both France and Britain.

C. France and Britain are near neighbors, and this will help balance the relationship between them.

D. The English Channel is the largest enemy between France and Britain.

【题解】此题属于推理题,是对具体某个细节的推理。此题是文章某个句子所隐含的意思的推理判断。虽然只是对具体某句话的理解,但是这也需要在充分理解整篇文章以后才能正确理解该句话在整个文章所隐含的含义,因此在解推理题时,大家一定要注意,无论是对整篇文章意思的推理判断还是对某个具体细节的推理判断,都不能脱离原文,不能凭自己的主观意愿来选择,但是答案也不会在原文中明明白白地写出来,只能是隐含其中,也就是“言中所无,意中所有”,否则就不叫推理题了。

    通过略读全文,可以看出文章描述的是英法两国既爱又恨的关系。通过这个描述以及文章在第二段第一句话以及尾段第一句话再次提到的两国庆祝友好协议签订100周年的事实可以判断出:尽管两国在某些问题上存在分歧和争议,但毕竟两国是一衣带水的邻邦,两国的关系会在争议中找到平衡点,并且两国的关系会有更进一步的发展。文章的最后一句话中 “best thing”以及一问一答,也准确的表述出是有利于两国的关系的是English Channel。而再考查选项AB中的 “no further disagreement”以及 “anything unfriendly”都没有准确而完整的表述出两国的关系,选项D是错误的表述,因此正确答案为C选项。

 

4(选自《大学英语》(B) Test 7, Passage 1, P. 157

此处为19小题D选项解题之关键句(蓝色画线部分)。

In the United States, it is not customary to telephone someone very early in the morning. If you telephone him early in the day, while he is shaving or having breakfast, the time of the call shows that the matter is very important and requires immediate attention. The same meaning is attached to telephone calls made after 11:00 p.m. If someone receives a call during sleeping hours, he assumes it’s a matter of life or death. The time chosen for the call communicates its importance. In social life, time plays a very important part. In the U.S.A. guests tend to feel they are not highly regarded if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date. But it is not true in all countries. In other areas of the world, it may be considered foolish to make an appointment too far in advance because plans which are made for a date more than a week away tend to be forgotten. The meaning of time differs in different parts of the world. Thus, misunderstandings arise between people from different cultures that treat time differently. Promptness is valued highly in American life, for example. If people are not prompt, they may be regarded as impolite or not fully responsible. In the U.S. no one would think of keeping a business associate waiting for an hour, it would be too impolite. A person who is 5 minutes late, will say a few words of explanation, though perhaps he will not complete the sentence. (260 words)

此处为19小题A选项解题之关键句(红色画线部分)。

此处为19小题C选项解题之关键句(红色双横线部分)。

此处为19小题B选项解题之关键句(蓝色波浪线部分)。

 


19. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? __________

A. In the U.S.A guests tend to feel they are highly regarded if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date.

B. There is no misunderstanding arising between people from different cultures about the concept of time.

C. It may be considered foolish to make an appointment well in advance in the U.S.A..

D. Promptness is valued highly in American life.

【题解】此题为正误判断题。题干要求是要根据文章的内容,选择选项的表述内容是正确的一个,因此这就要求大家在浏览原文的过程中要找到与四个选项所表述的内容相关的语句。选项A根据原文的第七句话可以准确的判定该选项表述的内容与原文不符,因为选项中表述的是 “… are highly regarded”,而原文的表述为 “are not highly regarded”;选项B在原文的第十一句话可以找到出处,可以判定与原文不符,原文的表述为 “misunderstanding arise between people…”,而选项B的表述为 “there is no misunderstanding between people…”;选项C根据原文的第79句话可以判定该选项表述的内容也与原文不符,因为C选项表述的意思为“在美国提前预约也许会被视为是愚蠢的事情”,而原文所表述的内容为在世界上的其他地区提前预约会被视为是愚蠢的,第9话中的 “other areas of the world”是针对第7话中的U.S.A.而言的,因此该选项也排除;D选项在原文的倒数第四句话有明确的表述,因此正确选项为D

 

20. From the passage we can safely infer that __________.

A. it’s a matter of life or death if you call someone in day time

B. the meaning of time differs in different parts of the world

C. it makes no difference in the U.S. whether you are early or late for a business party

D. if a person is late for a date, he needn’t make some explanation

【题解】此题为推理题,是对整篇文章内容的一个推断判定。对于这种题型,我们需要在理解整篇文章内容的基础上来考查选项。选项A表述的内容与原文不符,它的意思为“如果在白天打电话给某人是关系生死的事情”。很明显,在文章中所表述的是在早上或晚上给某人打电话才会被认为是关系生死的事情;选项B所表述的内容为“在世界上的不同地方时间概念各不相同”,这点在文章的倒数第6句话明确表述出来了;根据文章的最后两句话可以判定选项CD的表述错误的表述,因此正确答案为B选项。

 

5(选自《大学英语》(B) Test 8, Passage 1, P. 164

How men first learnt to invent words is unknown; in other words, the origin of language is a mystery. All we really know is that men, unlike animals, somehow invented certain sounds to express thought and feelings, actions and things, so that they could communicate with each other; and that later they agreed upon certain signs, called letters, which could be combined to present those sounds, and which could be written down. Those sounds, whether spoken or written in letters, we call words.

此处为25小题D选项解题之关键句(绿色画线部分)。

此处为25小题BC选项解题之关键句(蓝色画线部分)。

       The power of words, then, lies in their associations-the thing they bring up before our minds. Words become filled with meaning for us by experience; and the longer we live, the more certain words recall to us the glad and sad events of our past; and the more we read and learn, the more the number of words that mean something increases.

此处为25小题A选项解题之关键句(红色画线部分)。

       Great writers are those who not only have great thoughts but also express these thoughts in words which appeal powerfully to our minds and emotions. This charming and telling use of words is what we call literary style. Above all, the real poet is a master of words. He can convey his meaning in words which sing like music and which by their position and association can move men to tears. We should therefore learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they will make our speech silly and vulgar. (239 words)

 

25. Which of the following statements about the real poet is NOT true?

  A. He is no more than a master of words.       

B. He can convey his ideas in words which sing like music.

  C. He can move men to tears.                       

D. His style is always charming.

【题解】此题为正误判断题。根据题干,可以得知要求是要选择对于真正的诗人的错误表述,因此考查的重点就需要放在文章讲述有关诗人的段落,即文章的最后一段。选项A表述的意思为“他只是一个词语大师”,句中的 “no more than”相当于 “only”,在文章最后一段的第3句话中虽然提到了 “a master of words”,但是并没有任何的修饰限定词,所以A选项表述就是错误;而BCD选项分别在该段的第245话都提到了,所以正确答案为A选项。

做正误判断题要注意,命题者为了制造干扰,往往在错误选项中使用一些表示绝对含义的词汇,把命题推到极端,使其变成荒谬逻辑,比如选项A中的 “no more than” 就是这类词,其余还有“never, every, by no means, only, none, always …”等,因此,考生在解这类题时,尤其要注意选项中的这些限定词,并且此种选项往往是命题者设下的“陷阱”,一般应该排除。

 

3. 主旨题、词义题与观点态度题

6(选自《大学英语》(B) Test 3, Passage 2, P. 133

此处为21小题解题之关键句(绿色画线部分)。

Paper is one of the most important products ever invented by man. Wide spread use of written language would not have been possible without some cheap and practical material to write on. The invention of paper meant that more people could be educated because more books could be printed and distributed. Together with the printing press, paper provided an extremely important way to communicate knowledge.

How much paper do you use every year? Probably you cannot answer that question quickly. In 1990 the world’s use of paper was about one kilogram for each person a year. Now some countries use as much as 50 kilograms of paper for each person a year. Countries like the United States, England and Sweden use more paper than other countries.

Paper, like many other things that we use today, was first made in China. In Egypt and the West, paper was not very commonly used before the year 1400. The Egyptians wrote on a kind of material made of a water plant. Europeans used parchment for many hundreds of year. Parchment was very strong; it was made from the skin of certain young animals. We have learnt of the most important facts of European history from records that were kept on parchment. (208words)

 

21. What’s the meaning for the word “parchment”? ____________

A. The skin of young animals.

B. A kind of paper made from the skin of certain young animals.

C. The paper used by European countries.

D. The paper of Egypt.

【题解】此题为词义题。根据解词义题的基本方法,首先就是要查找该词所在的句子以及其前后一两句话。浏览原文,可以找到该词在原文第三段的倒数第二句和第三句话。根据这两句话我们可以得知“parchment”是欧洲人用了几百年的一种纸。该段的倒数第二句话对 “parchment”这个词做了详尽了解释,“羊皮纸很重,是由某种小动物的皮制成的”,而在选项中A表示小动物的皮;B表示一种由某种小动物制成的纸;C表示被欧洲国家使用的纸;D选项表示埃及的纸,因此正确答案为B选项。

 

25. What is the main idea of this short talk? ____________

A. More and more paper is being consumed nowadays.

B. Paper enables people to receive education more easily.

C. The invention of paper is of great significance to man.

D. Paper contributes a lot to the keeping of historical records.

【题解】此题为主旨题。浏览全文,可以看出文章在一开始就提出了文章的中心思想:“纸是人类的重要发明之一”,然后在第一段就详尽阐述了其重要性表现在哪些地方,在后面的两段通过分别讲述纸的用量以及纸的种类来进一步论述了纸的重要性。结合对原文的分析考查选项,在考查选项时,要注意选择主旨题的答案时,要注意选项的内涵范围不能太大也不能太小。例如此题中:

选项A为文章所论述内容的一个方面,即文章的第第二段的段落大意,不足以概括本文的主题;……………………………………………………………………………..………含义太窄

选项B为文章论述纸的重要性的一个细节方面;…….............................................含义太窄

选项C含义范围大体与本文相符,所以是答案;………………………………….含义范围相符

选项D的含义范围也只是文章的一个细节方面;………………………………….含义太窄

 

此两处为2425小题解题之关键句。(红色与蓝色划线部分)

7(选自《大学英语》(B) Test 9, Passage 2, P. 171

A characteristic of American culture that has become almost a tradition is to respect the self-made man the man who has risen to the top through his own efforts, usually beginning by working with his hands. While the leader in business or industry or the college professor occupies a higher social position and commands greater respect in the community than the common laborer or even the skilled factory worker, he may take pains to point out that his father started life in America as a farmer or laborer of some sort.

       This attitude toward manual(体力的)labor is now still seen many aspects of American life. One is invited to dinner at a home that is not only comfortably but even luxuriously(豪华地)furnished and in which there is every evidence of the fact the family has been able to afford foreign travel, expensive hobbies, and college education for the children; yet the hostess probably will cook the dinner herself, will serve it herself and will wash dishes afterward, furthermore the dinner will not consist merely of something quickly and easily assembled from contents of various cans and a cake or a pie bought at the nearby bakery. On the contrary, the hostess usually takes pride in careful preparation of special dishes. A professional may talk about washing the car, digging in his flowerbeds, painting the house. His wife may even help with these things, just as he often helps her with the dishwashing. The son who is away at college may wait on table and wash dishes for his living, or during the summer he may work with a construction gang on a highway in order to pay for his education. (291 words)

 

23. The expression “wait on table” in the second paragraph means “_______”.

  A. work in a furniture shop                                   B. keep accounts for a bar

  C. wait to lay the table                                   D. serve customers in a restaurant

【题解】此题为词义题。“wait on table”的意思为“为顾客服务”,同时根据下文的“wash dishes for his living洗碟子谋生以及选项的排除得出正确答案。选项A表示在家具店工作;选项B表示为一家酒吧记账;选项C表示等着摆餐具;选项D表示在饭店为顾客服务。因此正确答案为D选项。

 

24. The author’s attitude towards manual(体力的)labor is _______.

  A. positive                 B. negative                    C. humorous                 D. critical

【题解】此题为观点态度题。议论文中作者的观点是多种多样的,要分析作者的观点就一定要细心捕捉文章中表达或暗示其情感态度的词或短语,并且一定要注意是对什么的态度或观点。

       通过浏览全文,可以看出在文章的一开始作者就提出了 A characteristic of American culture that has become almost a tradition is to respect the self-made man几乎已经成为传统的美国文化特点是尊重自我奋斗的人,紧接着在文章的第二段的首句又再次提及 “This attitude toward manual(体力的)labor is now still seen many aspects of American life. 这种对待体力劳动的态度现在仍然可以在美国人生活中的很多方面看到,而文章中的的this attitude就是文章中第一段第一句话所提及的 “respect”,因此考查选项A表示积极的,选项B表示消极的,否定的,选项C表示幽默的,选项D表示批评的,讽刺的,因此正确答案为A选项。

 

25. Which of the following may serve as the best title of the passage?

  A. A Respectable Self-made Family.                B. American Attitude toward Manual Labor.

  C. Characteristics of American Culture.           D. The Development of Manual Labor.

【题解】此题为主旨题。此题是要求要选恰当的标题,是考查主旨的一种命题方式。对于这种同样的也要注意选项所概括的范围不能太大也不能太小。在这篇文章中,两个段落的首句恰好就是这两个段落的中心句,根据这两个句子可以看出文章讲的就是美国崇尚自我奋斗,尊重体力劳动的文化习惯,也就是对于自我奋斗与体力劳动的一个态度问题。考查选项A表示令人尊敬的自力更生的家庭,选项B表示美国人对待体力劳动的态度,选项C表示美国文化的特点,选项D表示体力劳动的发展。通过阅读文章,可以看出AD文章并未涉及,而C选项文章有所涉及,但重点并不在论述美国文化有哪些特点,因此正确答案为B选项。

 

注意:以上阅读题的讲解仅作为各种题型的解题技巧与思路的分析讲解,希望通过以上讲解大家能掌握相应的解题技巧,同时大家务必也要认真完成《大学英语》(B)中六套题中阅读理解部分的所有文章,结合以上的解题技巧与方法进行备考练习。

 

.词汇和语法结构

一、词汇部分

词汇和短语虽然主要功在平时,但临考前的准备也必不可少。该部分的考查主要涉及近义词、近形词辨析,词的搭配及惯用法等。在学习这部分时,最常遇到的问题便是词汇不足。一般认为背单词是件既吃力,又往往成效不彰的苦差事。实际上,若能采用适当的方法,是可以缩短扩大词汇量所需的时间,并且提高记忆单词的质量的。下面将简单介绍几种单词记忆法,大家可借助这些方法复习《大学英语》统考用书后词汇表中的B级词汇。

(一)结合记忆法
  将比较生疏,不常用的单词放入一定的语言环境—句子中,结合句意来记忆单词。遇到此单词时, 若词义忘记,则可通过回忆所在句子的意思来记忆单词。如:
    critical adj.

批评(性)的,吹毛求疵的

I don't like people who are too critical about everything.

我不喜欢对每件事都太吹毛疵的人。
紧要的,关键的;危急的

His condition is reported as being very critical.
据报告他的情况非常危急。

通过此法来掌握词汇,既有助于记住单词本身的拼写、拼读,又可同时熟悉词的词义、词性、用法和 搭配,比孤立地背记单词效果要好。

(二)同类记忆法
  将同类词汇收集在一起,同时记忆。注意,同类词汇与同义词不同:同义词是指意思相同,而同类词是指基本属性相同、具体意义不同的一类词汇。如:
    headmaster
principal是同义词, 意思为中小学校长;

bachelor(学士)、master(硕士),doctor (博士)三个词都表示学位授予的情况,但具体级别不同,所以这三个词是一组同类词汇。

联系上下层级来记忆,例如:

living things (生物)--- > animal;

plant(植物)-à pine (松树)-à trunk(树干);

                             leaf

                        root

                        branch

pine”一词上可联系到“plant”和“living things”,下可联系到“trunkleafrootbranch”。
这样,将同类词汇放在一起记忆,当遇到其中一个词时,头脑中出现的就是一组词,效率大大提高了。

(三)比较记忆法
  把同义词或形似词放在一起,加以区别、说明来掌握单词的方法。记忆的过程是一组组,一对对单词同时记忆。这种记忆方法可以记住单词拼写的同时,还掌握了词与词的区别和各自特殊的用法,清楚地区分平时极易混淆的单词。如:
    admit
confess同义词,均表示承认。但confess,含有坦白忏悔的意思, admit却无此意。admit除含有承认之意外, 还含有允许,接纳的意思。

acquireinquirerequire是三个形似词,但意思却完全不同:acquire(取得,获得)。 inquire(打听,查询)、require(需要,要求,命令)。

(四)构词法记忆法
  通过掌握构词法来记忆单词。英语主要有三种构词法:
  转化,即由一个词类转化为另一个词类。如:
  picturen.-picturev.描绘;watern.—waterv. 浇水

  ②派生,即演过加前缀或后缀构成另一个词,如:
  happy--unhappy(加前缀)happiness(加后缀)
   合成,即由两个或更多的词合成一个词。如:
  wood(木)+cut(刻-- woodcut(木刻);pea豌豆)+nuts(坚果)-- peanut(花生)
  这种记忆法可以将具有同一基本意义的不同词性或具有相反意义的一系列单词同时记忆,使不同单词的词义、词性不易混淆。

 

二、语法部分

统考语法部分主要涉及到连接词、动词形式与时态、主谓语一致、虚拟语气等内容,为方便考生对语法知识的复习,现将考试重点涉及内容总结如下:

 

(一)名词

A. 知识要点

名词可分为可数名词和不可数名词。可数名词有单、复数之分。

1.不可数名词只用单数形式。如果要表示数量多少,需在其前面加量词来表达。如:a piece of news(一条新闻);two pieces of advice(两条建议)

2.名词所有格的构成是名词加“’s”,如:Mary’s room;如原词已有复数词尾-s,则只加“”,如:the students’ hall, 通常用于有生命的存在物的名词;名词所有格也可以由介词of加名词构成,通常用于无生命的存在物的名词, 如:the window of the classroom.

 

B.例题讲解

What a beautiful house! Especially there are many ______.

A. furniture            B. furnitures          C. pieces of furniture            D. pieces of furnitures

解析:此题考查名词的单复数。Furniture 为不可数名词,后面不能加s。很多家具用many pieces of furniture,因此答案为C

 

(二)冠词

A. 知识要点

冠词是一种虚词,用在名词前面,说明名词是特指还是泛指。冠词分不定冠词和定冠词。

1. 不定冠词: a / an表示某一概念,用于单数可数名词前。a用在辅音开头的词前,an用在元音开头的词前。如:

an English teacher/ a second year一位老师/又一年;

2. 定冠词:the表示“特指的一个或一些”。通常用在形容词最高级及序数词前,或世界上独一无二的事物前;也用于乐器名词前。如:

the best season最好的季节/the first lady第一夫人/the earth 地球/play the piano 弹钢琴;

3. 不使用冠词的情况在三餐饭、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称之前。在某些惯用词中也不用冠词,以具体名词表示抽象概念。 如:

have lunch吃午饭/ play basketball打篮球/ go to school上学

 

B.例题讲解

1______ girl dressed ______ black is her sister Rose.

A. A; in                        B. A; on                 C. The; on                    D. The; in

解析:D。介词in可表示“穿(戴)”的意思。此外,特指“穿黑色衣服的女孩”,用定冠词the.

2He is fond of playing _______ piano while his brother is interested in listening to _______ music.

      A. /; the                        B. /; /                    C. the; /                        D. the; the

解析:C。演奏的乐器名词前+theMusic为不可数名词,其前不用可用a/an,而题意“对音乐感兴趣”并没有特指哪种音乐,也不可用the.

3He goes to ______ church every Sunday. ______ church he usually goes to has seating for over a thousand.

       A. a, the                B. /, The                             C. The, the                   D. /, a

解析:Bgo to church做礼拜”是惯用法,不用冠词。“他常去的教堂”表特指,前加the

 

(三)代词

代词用于指代。包括:人称、物主、反身、疑问、不定代词等。

1many, fewa few一般只能修饰或指代可数名词,much, littlea little 一般只能修饰或指代不可数名词。a few a little表示“有一些”,具有肯定意义,而fewlittle表示“几乎没有”,具有否定意义。manymuch表示“许多”。

2.表示“全部”:两者用both,三者以上用all; 表示“全无”:两者用neither,三者以上用none;表示“任一”:两者用either,三者以上用any

3other, others, the other, the others, another的区别

1other作形容词修饰名词,泛指别的、其他的。有时会放在some, any, every, no等词之后。e.g. We study Chinese, maths, English and other lessons.

2others是代词,泛指其他人或物。如:I'm glad to help others.

3the other特指范围内的另一个(范围内一共两个)。

e.g. I have two friends. One is from Australia, the other is from Japan.

4the others特指范围内的另一些(范围总数通常多于两个)。

e.g. There are forty students in our class. Twenty-eight of us are boys, the others are girls.

5another指同类中(三个或三个以上)的另一个,是指不确定的另一个。

e.g. Would you like another cup of coffee?

B.例题讲解

1The baby is hungry, but there’s ______ milk in the bottle.

A. little                         B. a little                C. few                         D. a few

解析:Amilk是不可数名词,所以只能用little/a little修饰,而根据题意“宝宝饿了,但瓶里几乎没有牛奶了”,只能选little

2She has two best friends. ______ of them is in the country.

A. All                           B. Both                  C. No one                     D. Neither

解析:D。代词all表“所有”和both表“两者都”,其后的谓语动词需要用复数。neither表“两者都不”,其后的谓语动词用单数。

3)—It’s time to tidy your room, Harry!

   See the tidy room, Mum! _______ is where it should be. Test 5

      A. Something                B. Anything            C. Everything                D. Nothing

解析:C。根据说话人所说内容可以知道,房间里一切都很整洁,含有整体性,应用everythingAnything用于肯定句时,表强调,该句没有强调之意。

4The red flower goes from one to _______ in the class.

      A. the other                  B. others               C. another                    D. other

解析:C。按照句意传花不是两者之间(from one to the other),而是三者以上(from one to another),故选C

 

(四)数词

A. 知识要点

数词分为两大类:基数词和序数词。

1.基数次表示数量(one, two, three…),序数次表示次序(first, second, third…)。

2.数词hundred, thousand, million不用复数;其“复数+of”可表示上百、成千、数百万,如:three thousand 三千/ thousands of trees(成千上万的树)

3.在年龄的表达时,注意以下表达法:

He is six years old.(其中year须用其复数)

He is a six-year-old boy.(其中year不用复数)“他6岁了。”

 

B.例题讲解

1They have learned about ______ in recent years.

A. several hundreds English words                     B. hundreds of English words

C. hundred of English words                      D. several hundred English word

解析:Bhundreds of 之类的短语之前也可加manyseveral之类的词修饰。A项的错误在于hundreds后缺少of

2Nancy is ______ girl.

A. a eighteen-year-old                               B. an eighteen-years-old

C. a eighteen-years-old                               D. an eighteen-year-old

解析:Deighteen-year-old是一个由连字符连接的复合形容词(其中year不用复数),作girl的定语。同时,由于eighteen元音开头的词,前面的不定冠词用an

 

(五)形容词和副词的比较级与最高级

A. 知识要点

1.比较级和最高级的构成形式

1)绝大多数单音节和部分双音节词后加-er构成比较级,加-est构成最高级。如:

nice – nicer – nicest

2)大部分双音节词和所有的多音节词,前面加more构成比较级,加the most 构成最高

级。如:careful-more careful-most careful

2形容词和副词的应用

1)同等程度比较: 

as + 原级 + as            e.g. Tom is as bright as Mark.汤姆和亨利一样聪明。

2)不同程度的比较:

比较级 + than              e.g. Tom is taller than Mark.汤姆比亨利高。

not as/so + 原级 + as    e.g. Tom is not as/so bright as Mark.汤姆不如亨利聪明。

3)对比与比较:

the +比较级, the +比较级 e.g. The older I get, the happier I am.我越变老,越觉得幸福。

比较级+ and +比较级    e.g. Jane became more and more beautiful.珍妮越来越漂亮了。

4当几个形容词修饰一个名词时,其排列顺序是:

     好坏、美丑 + 大小、新旧、颜色 + 质地、属性 + 名词

5)当被修饰的是以-thing, -one, -body结尾的不定代词时,作定语的形容词要后置。

     e.g. I read something interesting. 我读了一些有趣的东西。

 

例题讲解

1Your box is         mine.

A. four times as big as                              B. four times as bigger as

C. as four times big                                          D. as big as four times

解析:A。在asas句型中,如有表示程度的状语(如 twice, three times),则置第一个as之前,表示前者是后者的几倍。

2Today’s weather is ______ worse than yesterday’s.

A. very                         B. much                C. very much                D. much too

解析:Bvery用来修饰形容词的原级形式;much修饰比较级;very much一般用来修饰动词; much too常用来修饰形容词的原级形式。

3)—Did the medicine make you feel better?

No. The more _______, _______ I feel.

      A. medicine I take; and the worse               B. medicine I take; the worse

      C. I take medicine; the worse                            D. I take medicine; worse

解析:D 本题是“越…越…”句型,要用“the + 比较级,the + 比较级”句型,前后分句都用陈述语气。

4)—What will you buy for your boyfriend’s birthday?

I want to buy a _______ wallet for him.

      A. black leather small                                 B. small black leather

      C. small leather black                                 D. black small leather

解析:B。根据多个形容词作定语次序排列规律,应该是small(大小)+black(颜色)+leather(质地)。

 

(六)动词的基本时态

A. 知识要点

1.一般现在时态

形式为do does (第三人称单数)。通常表示客观事实或真理;或表示经常发生的、习惯性的动作或存在的状态。

e.g. The earth moves around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。

He always goes to school by bike.他总是骑车去上学。

(特别提醒.一般现在时可以代替将来时,用于时间和条件状语从句中。

e.g. Please be sure to telephone me the next time you come. 下次来之前请一定给我来电话。

2.一般过去时态

形式为did. 表示过去时间所发生的动作或存在的状态,常与过去特定的时间状语连用;或表示过去某一段时间一直持续或反复发生的动作,可与表示频度的时间副词连用。

e.g. I bought this computer five years ago.

He often took a walk after supper when he was alive.

3.一般将来时态

形式为will / shall do /be going to do. 表在未来某个时间将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

e.g. The telephone is ringing. I will answer it.电话在响,我去接。

4.现在进行时态

   形式为is/am/are+ doing,表示此时此刻或现阶段正在进行的动作。

e.g. The police are looking for the two missing children.警察们正在寻找两个丢失的孩子。

5.过去进行时态

   形式为 was/were + doing,表示过去某个时刻正在进行的动作。

e.g. Jane burnt her hand when she was cooking the dinner.

6.现在完成时态

形式为have / has done,常与alreadyneverever, yet连用。用来表示过去发生的对现在有影响的动作。

e.g. The milk has already become undrinkable 牛奶已经不能喝了。

或者表示过去某时间开始一直延续到现在的动作。

e.g. He has lived here since 1949.自从1949年以来,他一直住在这儿。

7过去完成时

形式为had done. 表示在过去某一时刻以前已经开始并一直延续到这一时刻、或是在此刻前已经完成的动作。

e.g. By the end of last term we had learned 1000 English words.到上学期末我们已经学了1000个英语单词。

 

B.例题讲解

1When Lily came home at 5 p.m. yesterday, her mother ______ dinner in the kitchen.

A. cooked                     B. was cooking     C. cooks                      D. has cooked

解析:B。此题意思为:当Lily昨天下午五点回家时,妈妈正在厨房里做饭。用过去进行时。

2John’s father ______ mathematics in this school ever since he graduated from Harvard University.

A. taught                      B. teaches              C. has taught                D. is teaching

解析:C。此题意思为:约翰的父亲自从哈佛大学毕业后就一直在这所学校读书,这种状态一直持续到现在,所以句子用现在完成时。

3I was giving a talk to a large group of people, the same talk I ______ to half a dozen other groups before.

A. was giving                B. am giving          C. had given                 D. have given

解析:C。凡是表示过去动作之前的动作要用过去完成式“had done”。根据题意可知had given的动作发生在was giving之前,所以用过去完成时。

 

(七)非谓语动词

在英语中,不作句子谓语,而具有除谓语外其他语法功能的动词,叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词包括动词不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词;有一般时、进行时和完成时三种形式以及相应的主动与被动语态。

A.知识要点

1.动词不定式和动名词都可作主语。

e.g. Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。

To refuse him is not easy this time. 这次很难拒绝他。

注意:常用it作形式主语,而将动词不定式放在谓语后面。

e.g. It is impossible for us to measure it in miles. 让我们用英里来计算不太可能。(不定式前加一个for us表示不定式的动作是谁做的)

2.动词不定式和动名词都可作宾语。

1有些及物动词只能用不定式作宾语,如:hopewantwishdecidemanage等:

e.g. We all hope to see you. 我们都希望见到你。

2有些及物动词只能用动名词作宾语,如:finish, avoid, enjoy, mind, insist on 等:

e.g. He has finished doing his work.他已经干完了他的工作。

3有的及物动词既可用不定式,也可用动名词,但其意义有所不同。如:remember, forget,  regret, stop… 前者表示动作还没有做,后者表示动作已经做了。

e.g. I forgot to take aspirin this morning.. 我上午忘了吃阿斯匹林了(但现在想起来了)。

e.g. I forgot taking aspirin and took it again a few minutes ago. 我忘了吃过阿司匹林,几分钟以前又吃了一次。

3.动词不定式和分词作补足语。

1)一些表示感官词或使役动词,如see, hear, have, make, let等后面用不带to的不定式

宾补。

2)不定式做宾语补足语,表示动作发生了(即动作的全部过程结束了);现在分词作宾补,

表动作正在发生(即处于发生的过程中),如:

e.g. I saw the boy climb the wall. 我看见小孩爬墙了。(强调爬墙这件事)

e.g. I saw the boy climbing the wall.我看见小孩在爬墙。(强调爬墙的情景)

3)现在分词作补足语,它与被补足的词之间是主动关系;过去分次作补足语,它与被补足的词之间是被动关系。如:

e.g. I heard someone calling me.

     e.g. I heard my name called. 我听见有人喊我。

4.非谓语动词作状语和定语时,尤其是分词作状语时,要注意分词的逻辑主语必须和句子

的主语一致。现在分词表示的动作和句子的主语之间是主动关系,过去分词表示的动作和句

子的主语间是被动关系;分词作定语时,现在分词表示的动作和它所修饰的词之间是主动关

系,过去分词表示的动作和它修饰的词之间是被动关系。

e.g. Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker.在工厂工作时,他是名先进工人。

e.g. Seen from the hill, our school looks more beautiful.从小山上看,我们学校显得更美丽。

5.非谓语动词也有否定结构和时态/语态。

非谓语动词的否定结构是在它们前面加not来构成。如果非谓语动词表示的动作发在

要谓语动词所表示的动作之后同时,用一般式,如果非谓语动词表示的动作在主要谓语动词所表示的动作之前,则用完成式

e.g. They decide not to go.他们决定不去。

e.g. Tom’s not passing the exam made his father very angry.汤姆考试没有及格,这令他父亲非常生气。

   e.g. Having finished the work he went home.干完活后他回家了。(分词having finished发生在went前)

 

B.例题讲解

1Bob said that it is easy _______.

A. for him being on time                                   B. being on time for him

C. for him to be on time                             D. on time for him

解析:C。此题that从句中,用it作形式主语,而将不定式to be on time(准时)放在句子最后面。不定式前加一个for him表示不定式的动作是谁做的。

2Would you let _______ to the park with my classmate, Mum?

      A. me go                      B. me going           C. I go                         D. I going

解析:Alet是使役动词,用不带to的不定式作宾补,即let sb. do sth.这个结构。

3You don’t mind ______ you Xiao Li, do you?

A. call                         B. to call                C. to calling                  D. my calling

解析:Dmind后面只能用动名词作宾语。

4Charles regretted ______ the TV set last year. The price has now come down.

A. buying                     B. to buy               C. of                            D. from

解析:Aregret后既可用动名词,也可用不定式,前者表后悔做了某事(动作已做了),后者则表为要去做某事遗憾(动作还没有做)。根据题意思,应选A

5There was so much noise in the classroom that the teacher couldn’t make himself _______.         A. heard                       B. hearing           C. to hear                            D. hear

解析:A。宾语与宾语补足语之间是被动关系,所以用过去分词。

6Do you know the man ______ under the apple tree?

A. lay                           B. lain                   C. lying                        D. laying

解析:Clielay, lain, lying)“平躺,位于”;lielied, lied, lying)“撒谎”;laylaid, laid, laying)“放置”。根据题意,应该用“平躺”之意。分词表示的动作与其修饰的词之间是主动关系,用现在分词,所以选C

7_______ tomorrow’s lessons, Frank has no time to go out with his friends.

      A. Not preparing                                       B. Not having prepared 

C. Not to prepare                                      D. Being not prepared

解析:B。非谓语动词的否定形式都是在最前边加not,排除D。由于“还没有完成对明天功课的准备”,因此“不能跟朋友外出玩耍”,根据句意,强调动作的完成性,用完成式。

(八)主要情态动词
A.
情态动词用来表示能力、允许、许诺、可能、必须、劝告、意愿等概念或态度。情态动词无人称变化,在句子中和动词原形一起组成谓语。常用的情态动词有mustcanbe able toneedshall, shouldought to, couldwould


B.
情态动词后接完成时的用法

1musthave done这一结构表示对过去一个动作比较有把握的猜测。

e.g. The ground was very wet. It must have rained during the night.
2
should (ought to )+have done这一结构表示本来应该做却没有做的事情。

e.g. I’m sorry I am late, I should have gotten up earlier. 我很抱歉我迟到了,我本应早点儿起床的。

3couldhave done这一结构表示本来能做的事情而没有做。

e.g. Catherine could have bought that coat, but she chose to lend the money to a needy friend. 凯瑟琳本来可以买那件大衣的,但是她把钱借给一个更急需的朋友了。

4need not + have done: 这一结构表示本来没有必要做的事情却做了。

e.g. You need not have done the job.你没有必要做那种工作的。

 

C. 例题讲解

1The young lady coming over to us ______ our English teacher; the way she walks tells us that!

A. must be                    B. can be               C. would be                  D. could be

解析:A。从后面的进一步解释中我们可以看到说话人语气十分肯定,表示对……很有把握的推测。

2You ______ buy some reference books when you go to college.

A. could                       B. will have to        C. must to                    D. might

解析:Bcouldmight与题意不符。must表示“主观要求必须做某事”,have to则表示“客观情况要求不得不做某事”。根据题意,选B最恰当。

3He didn’t pass the final examination. He ______ it.

A. must have prepared for                          B. ought to prepare for

C. ought to have prepared for                            D. ought to prepare for

解析:C。此题考查情态动词+完成式。“ought to+完成式”表示过去本应该做却没有做。

 

(九)动词的语态

A. 知识要点

1.动词的语态表示主语和谓语之间的关系。英语有两种语态:主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是谓语动作的承受者。被动语态的形式:be+过去分词。

e.g. Such stories are published for children.

e.g. The TV was turned on and everybody sat there, watching it.

2英语中的一些感官动词如see, watch, notice, hear和使役动词make, have, let +不带to的不定式(do sth.), 但在被动语态中to则不能少。

3.在need, want, require等及物动词后面接动名词的主动形式可以表示被动含义。

e.g. My hair needs cutting.我该理发了。

 

B例题讲解

1Every year thousands of lives ______ in road accidents because of careless driving.

A. lose                         B. lost                   C. have lost                  D. are lost

解析C。因为是每一年,所以句子用现在时;生命被夺走,所以用被动语态。

2After the Minister of Education had finished speaking at the press conference, he was made ______ all sorts of awkward questions.

A. answer                     B. answering          C. answered                 D. to answer

解析:D题项中将make sb. do sth.(让某人干某事)转换成了被动语态 sb. was made to do sth.(某人被让干某时),因此to不能少。

3My watch has been losing time for the past week. It probably needs ______.

A. cleaning            B. to clean                    C. cleaned                    D. to be cleaning

解析:Aneed+动名词主动形式(cleaning)可以表被动含义。

 

(十) 虚拟语气

A.虚拟语气是动词的一种特殊形式,用来表达说话人的主观愿望和假想虚拟的情况,考试中以虚拟语气为考点的试题也不算少,大家应该尽量掌握。

B.知识要点

1.虚拟语气用于if引导的条件状语从句

表示对不可能发生的事实的一种假设;或对已经发生过的事实进行一种相反情况的假设;

    

从句谓语形式

主句谓语形式

虚拟现在时

(与现在事实相反)

动词的过去式

be一般用were)

should (would, could,

might )+动词原形

虚拟过去时

(与过去事实相反)

had done

should (would, could,

might )+have done

虚拟将来时

(与将来事实可能相反)

     动词过去式

should+动词原形

were to+动词原形

should (would, could,

might )+动词原形

 

2.虚拟语气用在表示要求、命令、建议语气的词引导的从句中:

1)用在动词suggest(建议), order(命令), insist(坚持), require(需要), demand(要求),propose(提议)等引导的宾语从句以及它们相应的名词suggestion, order, insistence, demand, proposal 后面的表语和同位语从句中谓语要用“(should+动词原形”

e.g. He suggested that weshouldstart now. 他建议我们现在就开始。

e.g. My suggestion is that weshouldsend a few people to help the other groups.我的建议是我们派几个人去帮助别的小组。

2用在“It +be+ naturalnecessarystrangeimportantessential以及insistedsuggested

ordered+that…”结构中的that引导的主语从句以及它们相应的名词(引导的表语和同位语从句中;从句的谓语用“(should+动词原形

e.g. It’s necessary that you should be present at the meeting.  你有必要参加会议。

3虚拟语气运用其他从句中:

1)运用在wish后面的从句中表示“愿望”,运用在as if从句中表示“好像”,谓语形式:

用动词的过去式虚拟现在的情况;用过去完成式虚拟过去的情况;用would(或might+动词原形虚拟将来的情况。

I wish I knew the answer. 但愿我知道答案。

It is wished that he had not made the mistake.他要没犯此错误该多好。

     The old lady is quarrelling with others as if she were mad.那位年老的女士正在和其他人争吵,就好像她疯了一样。

3)运用在would rather后面的从句中

     表示“希望”,用动词的过去式虚拟现在或将来的情况,用过去完成式虚拟过去的情况。

     e.g. I’d rather I had seen the film. 我真希望我看过这部电影。

4)运用在It is (high) time后边的从句中
    表示“该干……的时间到了”,用动词的过去式或should+动词原形

e.g. It is time that we had/should have a rest.该是我们休息的时间了。

 

C例题讲解

1Had you come five minutes earlier, you ______ the train to Birmingham. But now you missed it.

A. would catch             B. would have caught    C. could catch              D. should catch

解析:B。虚拟语气用法,这里是对过去发生的事情虚拟,用“if从句+had come,主句+would have caught”。此题前面的从句省略了if,所以根据句法要求倒装,将had提前到句首。

2The dean of the Philosophy Department requested that the visiting scholar ______ a lecture on the philosopher Sartre.

A. gave                        B. give                         C. would give        D. had given

解析:Brequest(要求)后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气,从句的谓语动词用“(should+动词原形”。

3I wish everybody _______ the meeting tomorrow.

      A. will attend                B. would attend             C. had attended      D. is going to attend

解析:Bwish后的从句用虚拟语气。当表示与将来希望相反时,从句中的谓语动词用“would+动词原形”。

4I would rather _______ two weeks earlier. 

A. you should come here                            B. you come here

      C. you came here                                      D. you had come here

解析:Dwould rather后的从句用过去完成式虚拟过去的情况。

5It’s time we _______ the lecture because everybody has arrived.

      A. will start                   B. shall start           C. start                         D. started

解析:D。“It is (high) time+从句”结构中,从句中的谓语动词用一般过去式表示虚拟语气。

 

(十一)主谓一致

A. 知识要点

主谓一致就是谓语动词必须在数和人称上与主语取得一致。主谓一致的关系根据“语法一致”、“意义一致”、和“就近一致”三项原则来实现。

1.语法一致

1)由and连接两个或两个以上的并列主语时(指的是两个或两个以上不同的人或事物)谓语动词用复数。

e.g. The woman and her husband work in the same office.那妇女和她丈夫在同一个单位

工作。

2)做主语的名词后面有as well as, with, together with, except, but, like, no less than等引导的短语时,谓语动词的数由做主语的名词决定。

e.g. An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this work. 一位专家和几位助手被派去协助这项工作。

     The children, like their parents, are very kind-hearted.这些孩子像他们的父母一样都那么

好心肠。

3)主语为动词不定式(to do)、动名词(V-ing) 以及从句做主语时谓语动词用单数。

e.g. To see is to believe. (Seeing is believing.) 眼见为实。

         What he told us was not the truth. 他所告诉我们的不是事实。

 

2. 意义一致

1)有and连接两个或两个以上的并列主语时,但是表示同一人或事物,或代表一个概念,动词用单数。

e.g. The professor and president of our school is retired.

2)主语为all, half, most, some, any, none等不定代词时,通过上下文确定其实际意义,谓语动词的单复数形式则根据主语的实际意义来决定。

e.g. His weekends? Half are spent in the country. 他的周末?一半是在乡下度过的。

         His time? Half was spent on books. 他的时间?一半是花在了读书上。

3)主语为形容词或分词加定冠词转化来的名词时, 如果指一类人,为复数意义,谓语动词用复数;如果指单个人或抽象概念,为单数意义,谓语动词用单数。

e.g. The killed were buried on the hillside. 那些被害者被埋在了山坡上。

         The killed was his neighbor. 那被害者是他的邻居。

 

3.就近一致

主语为either…or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also等连接的并列名词时,谓语动词的数取决于最靠近的名词的数。

e.g. Neither the children nor their father was in the car. 无论是孩子们,还是他们的父亲都不在车里。

e.g. Neither the father nor his children were in the car. 无论是父亲,还是他的孩子们都不在车里。

 

B.例题讲解

1Both the kids and their parents ______ English, I think. I know it from their accent.

A. is                            B. been                  C. are                           D. was

解析:both…and…表示“两者都……”,连接的是两个不同的主语,因此谓语动词要用复数形式,所以正确答案为C选项。

2Two thousand dollars ______ enough for the car.

A. being                       B. were                 C. are                           D. is

解析:此题是用钱来做主语,而货币单位做主语时看作单数,因为它在概念上属于一个整体,因此正确答案为D选项。此外,距离、重量、时间等单位充当主语时也看作单数。

3The young _______ interested in pop music.

      A. is                             B. have                  C. has                          D. are

解析:此题的主语是the+形容词表示一类人,意思是“年轻人”,表示的是复数意义,因此谓语动词也要用复数形式,并且表示对……感兴趣是用的be interested in sth,正确答案为D选项。

 

(十二)倒装句

A. 知识要点

倒装是指将句子的谓语动词或其助动词放在主语之前。

e.g. Then began a war between two countries. 于是两国之间开始了战争。(全部倒装)

   Seldom have we felt as comfortable as here. 我们难得像在这里这么舒服。(部分倒装)

 常用倒装的两种情况

1.出于句子结构的需要

1)在as, though引导的让步状语从句中,从句往往放在主句的前面,而且从句须以形容词、名词或动词(原形)等开头。

e.g. Hard as she studied, she failed to this examination.

2)代词so, neither, nor等副词置于句首时, 表示“……(/没有)……”全句要倒装

e.g. Tom can speak English. So can Jack. 汤姆会讲英语,杰克也会

2.出于强调

never, seldom, little, nor, hardly…(when…), scarcely…(when…), no sooner…(than…), not only, not until等表示否定的副词或连词位于句首时;

e.g. Never in my life have I seen such a thing. 我一生中从未见过这样的事情。

    e.g. Not only did he hear, but also he saw it too.他不但听见了,而且也看见了。

 

B.例题讲解

1Never before ______ see such a terrible car accident on the road!

A. I have                      B. have I               C. I did                        D. did I

解析:never表示否定意义的词放在句首,要倒装,因此排除AC选项;考查B选项,助动词用的have,与后面的动词原形see不一致,因此正确答案为D选项。

2I was satisfied with her explanation, ______.

A. so my classmates were                          B. so were my classmates

C. so my classmates did                             C. so did my classmates

解析:so, neither / nor引导句子表示与上文已经提到的肯定或否定意思一致时,so, neither / nor引导的句子要倒装,并且所用的谓语动词以及时态要与前面一句话的时态、谓语保持一致,因此正确答案为B选项。

3Hardly _______ on stage _______ the audience started cheering.

A. he had come / than                                B. he had come / when               

C. had he come / when                              D. had he come / than

解析:hardly…when是固定搭配,表示“一…………”;并且hardly表示“几乎不”,表示否定意义,放在句首要倒装,因此正确答案为C选项。

4Important _______ his discovery might be, it was regarded as a matter of no account in his time.

      A. when                             B. until                  C. as                            D. although

解析:该句的意思是“_______ 他的发明也许重要,在他那个时代,它被视为一件不重要的事情。”,可以句子的含义,可以看出前后两句话是转折的关系,因此选项部分应为让步状语从句,而在让步状语从句中,用作状语的形容词或名词位于句首时,要用asthough,因此正确答案为C选项。

 

(十三)强调结构

A. 知识要点

通过强调句强调

强调句的结构是:It is / was + 被强调部分(主语、宾语、表语或状语) + thatwho被强调部分用that引出,指人时也可用who

e.g. Mrs. Brown came to visit our college on Wednesday.

It was on Wednesday that Mrs. Brown came to visit our college. 太太正是在星期三来参观我们学院的.

注意以下几点:

被强调的部分为句子中除谓语以为的所有成分,但无论强调句子的什么成分,如时间状语、地点状语等,都用that引出句子的其他部分,而不用when, where;在强调人时还可用who / whom

在此结构中be动词只有时态的变化,没有数的变化,即不管被强调的部分是单数还是复数,一律用is / was

被强调的部分是从原正常句子中为强调而提取出来的那一部分,因而要保持原来的时态,主语、宾语是代词都仍用代词

It is / was not until … that …是强调句型中常见的强调时间状语从句的句式,that后用肯定式。

e.g. I didn’t know what kind of a country she is until I came to China.

It was not until I came to China that I knew what kind of a country she is.正是直到我到了中国我才知道她是一个怎样的国家。

 

B.例题讲解

1It was on the beach ______ Miss White found the kid lying dead.

A. that                          B. this                          C. it                      D. which

解析:It was…that…为强调句型,此句话中强调的是地点状语。因此正确答案为A选项。

2It is not until you have lost your health _______ you know its value.

      A. until                  B. when                       C. what                        D. that

解析:It is not until…that…为强调句,强调的是until时间状语,因此正确答案为D选项。

 

 (十四)从句

1名词从句

A. 知识要点

在句中起名词作用的从句称为名词从句,可以在句中作主语、宾语或介词宾语、表语、同位语等。名词性从句通常由that, whether/if, 疑问词(which, what, why, how等)以及连接词(whenever“无论什么时候”, whatever“无论什么”等)引导。

1that引导的名词从句:无任何语义,不做句子成分,仅起连接主、从句的作用。在宾语从句中常可省去,其他名词从句中不能省。

e.g. That she doesn’t understand spoken English is obvious. 很明显她不懂口语。(主从)

I think (that) he is a good actor. 我知道他是个好演员。(宾从)

The truth is that he is only eighteen. 事实是他只有18岁。(表从)

The fact that Ann was late didn’t surprise me.安迟到的事实不足为奇。(同位语从句)

2whether / if 引导的名词性从句:whether / if表示“是否”的意思。

e.g. Whether she goes with us (or not) is not important to me. 她是否和我们一起去对我而 言不重要。(主语从句)

I don’t know whether/if he will come. 我不知道他来不来。(宾语从句)

3由疑问词引导的名词性从句:疑问词引导名词性从句时,在从句中担任语法成分,而且常保留其本身的含义。

e.g. Why they left the country is a secret. 他们为什么要离开乡下是个秘密。(主从)

     She explained to him how he can start the car. 她向他解释怎样才能启动这汽车。(宾

从)

     The question was who owned the house. 问题是谁是那房子的主人。(表从)

4)名词从句中注意的几点:

that引导主语从句或宾语从句时,可用it作形式主语或形式宾语。

e.g. It is strange that he make a mistake. 真怪,他竟做错了。(主从,it为形式主语,真正的主语为that所引导的从句)

e.g. He made it quite clear that he preferred to study English. 他很明确地说他宁愿学习英语。(宾从,it为形式宾语,真正的宾语为that所引导的从句)

在同位语从句中,可接同位语的名词通常是抽象名词,且通常带冠词。常见的有:idea(主意), belief(信仰), doubt(疑问), evidence(证据), fact(事实), hope(希望), message(消息), news(消息), orders(命令), plan(计划), promise(许诺), feeling(感觉), truth (真理,事实)等。

 

B.例题讲解

1With his work completed, the manager stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased ______ he was a man of action.

A. which                      B. that                   C. what                        D. whether

解析:此题中he was a man of action这个句子做pleased的宾语,而在这个宾语从句中句子成分完整且不缺词义,因此正确答案为B选项。

2I have the complacent feeling ______ I’m highly intelligent.

A. what                        B. which               C. that                          D. this

解析:feeling后面的句子是一个同位语从句,要用that来引导,因此正确答案为C选项。

3We all thought ______ pity that you were unable to attend our meeting.

A. that                          B. which               C. this                          D. it

解析:此题中,that所引导的从句是宾语,因此在谓语动词thought之后缺少一个形式宾语it,因此正确答案为D选项。

 

2.定语从句

A. 知识要点

1)在句子中作定语的从句称为定语从句

e.g. He is the person who / that is going to give a concert on the century square.

                 

         先行词    关联词

他是那个要在世纪广场上举行音乐会的人。

2关联词在定语从句中充当一定成分,

关系代词/副词

先行词

在从句中的作用

关系

代词

who

指人

作主语

whom

作宾语(可省)

that

指人或物

作主语/宾语(作宾语时可省)

whose

作定语

which

指物

作主语/宾语

关系

副词

when

表示时间的名词

作时间状语

where

表示地点的名词

作地点状语

why

reason

作原因状语

 

e.g. A man who does not try to learn from others cannot hope to achieve much. 一个不向别人学习的人是不能指望有多大成就的。(作主语)

   The engineers (whom / that) we met yesterday have worked out a new machine. 我们昨天碰到的那些工程设计出了一种新的机器。(作宾语)

   It is a problem which needs very careful consideration. 这是一个需要非常认真考虑的问题。(作主语)

   Madame Curie is a great scientist whose name is known all over the world. 居里夫人是一位

   全世界闻名的伟大科学家。(作定语) 

We can never forget the day when Hong Kong returned to out homeland. 我们永远不会忘记香港回归祖国的那一天。(作时间状语)

   The building where you used to live has been pulled down. 你过去曾住过的那栋大厦已经被拆除了。(作地点状语)

   We know the reason why he was very angry. 我们知道他为什么非常生气。(作原因状语,其先行词一般是reason

3只能用关系代词that的情况:

先行词为all, anything, something等不定代词时,只能用that

e.g. I have never taken anything that doesn’t belong to me. 我从未拿过不属于我的任何东

西。

先行词前有最高级形容词及序数词first, last, next, only等修饰词时,只能用that

e.g. He was one of the greatest scientists that ever lived. 他是有史以来最伟大的科学家之一。

    He is the only one among us that knows English. 他是我们当中唯一一个懂英语的人。

4只能用关系代词which的情况:

定语从句前出现逗号,介词时,只能用which引导;

e.g. I never met Mary again, which was a pity.

定语从句中作关系代词作宾语且前面有介词时,只能用which引导。

e.g. The music to which we listened last night was written by my father. 我们昨晚听的那首曲子是我父亲写的。

 

B.例题讲解

1Did you notice the guy ______ head looked like a big potato?

A. who                         B. which               C. whose                      D. whom

解析:此题中,the guy是先行词,并且在定语从句中主语、谓语和宾语都不缺,只缺少名词主语中head的定语,表示“那个家伙的头看上去像个大马铃薯”,因此正确答案为C选项。

2While I was in the university, I learned taking a photo, _______ is very useful now for me.

      A. it                             B. which               C. that                          D. what

解析:此题是which引导非限制性定语从句,that不能引导非限制性定语从句,而AD是不能引导定语从句的,因此正确答案为B选项。

3It is the best _______ I have seen.

      A. that                          B. who                  C. whom                      D. which

解析:先行词为the best,是good的最高级形式;在定语从句中,先行词为形容词最高级或有最高级形容词修饰词时,只能用that,因此正确答案为A选项。

4Children under fifteen are not permitted to see such kind of movies _______ bad for their mental development.

      A. that is                      B. which is            C. as is                         D. what are

解析:such能与as, that搭配分别引导定语从句和状语从句,因此排除BD。在此题中,______ is bad for their mental development这句话中,缺少主语,因此该句为such…as…引导的定语从句,as代替kind of movies做定语从句中的主语,因此正确答案为C选项。

5The film brought the hours back to me _______ I was taken good care of in that remote village.   

A. when                       B. where               C. that                          D. until

解析:此题中,the hours为先行词,而在从句中缺少的就是相应的时间状语,因此正确答案为A选项。

 

 3.状语从句

A. 知识要点

用作状语的从句称为状语从句。它主要用于修饰句子中的谓语动词,从各个方面来修饰、说明谓语动词发生时的各种情况。状语从句的连接副词有很多,比如:when(当时候)while(当时候), as(正当时), every time(每当), before(在以前), since(自以来), until / till(直到, hardly when(刚),because (因为), as(在..时候;像一样;因为, since(既然,自从),if(如果), though(虽然), as, than…等等。例句:

1When she woke up, she found everybody had gone. 她醒来时,她发现大家都走了。(时间状语从句)

2Don’t try to get on the train until / till it stops.等火车停下来再上车。(时间状语从句)

3Wherever I go, I will bring a umbrella with me. 我不管到哪,都会带上一把伞。(地点状语从句)

4He was worried because he hadn’t had any letter form his child. 他很着急,因为他一直没       有收到他孩子的信。(原因状语从句)

5I’ll ring him up at once so that he shouldn’t wait for me. 我马上给他挂电话以便他别等我 了。(结果状语从句)